Prologue to the Saddler University Commission

In 1917, the Government of India designated a Commission to study and investigate the issues of the Calcutta University following the establishment of The Universities Act of 1904. The commission was chiefly developed with the express proverb to enquire into the condition and prospects of the college of Calcutta and to consider the subject of a valuable approach comparable to the inquiry it presents. The commission was selected under the chairmanship of M.E. Saddler who was the bad habit Chancellor of the college of Leeds. The Sadler University Commission likewise included two Indian Members, specifically Sir Ashutosh Mukherjee and Zia-ud-racket Ahmed. The Sadler Commission announced that the state of the optional schooling should be improved to improve the norm of college Education.

The commission visited all the college communities and following 17 months, presented its report in 1919. It is an extremely long and critical report. The report comprise of 13 volumes, giving a basic and complete study of instructive issues of auxiliary, university and college schooling in India. In spite of the fact that it manages the Calcutta University just, the issue that it considered were pretty much basic to the next Indian Universities too. The proposals, accordingly, were similarly relevant to different colleges in the nation. Subsequently, the report of the commission had extensive outcomes upon the improvement of college schooling in India in general.

Proposals of the Saddler University Commission

In the assessment of the Saddler University Commission, it was unrealistic to achieve progressive changes in the field of advanced education without making changes in auxiliary schooling. Accordingly, some essential changes were recommended in the auxiliary schooling for improving the advanced degree.

The Saddler University Commission thus suggested that the partitioning line between the college and the auxiliary courses ought to be drawn at the Intermediate assessment as opposed to at the Matriculation and the Government ought to make another kind of foundation called Intermediate Colleges.

The educational program of these Intermediate universities ought to comprise courses identified with Arts, Science, Engineering, Industrial training and so forth. In the wake of clearing the middle of the road assessment instead of the Matriculation Examination, the understudies would be qualified for enter the college.

The length of the degree course after the middle of the road state should be restricted to three years. For these two distinct branches was made in the Intermediate schools. For the qualified understudies the arrangements of praises degree and for the overall understudies, there was the arrangement of Pass Course.

Leading body of Secondary and Intermediate Education, comprising of the delegates of Government, University, High Schools and Intermediate Colleges be set up and endowed with the organization and control of Secondary Education. The commission likewise suggested less inflexibility in the outlining the guidelines and guidelines of the colleges.

It additionally suggested the foundation of an Inter University Board for planning the exercises of various Indian colleges. Self-governing establishments were to be given greater consolation. Unified private training colleges were to be supported. These organizations were additionally to be offered independence to encourage their everyday working.

Ladies instruction was to be energized incredibly. The foundation of a unique Board of ladies Education in the Calcutta University other than numerous different offices that would enable an ever increasing number of ladies to take up course in school, schools and Universities. Arrangements of offices was to be made for preparing educators and setting up the Department of Education at the Universities of Calcutta and Decca.

The Saddler Commission suggested for the brought together unitary showing independent bodies. A unitary training college was suggested for Dacca with the goal that the weight of understudies can be decreased from the Calcutta University. Further the Saddler Commission likewise underscored the development of universities in the towns. It empowered the development of new college habitats so the advanced education could be proliferated appropriately.

It prompted increment in the quantity of colleges. Because of the proposals of the Saddler University Commission, various new colleges were opened in the nation. Of these, the colleges at Patna, Osmania, Aligarh, Dacca, Lucknow, Delhi, Agra, Nagpur, Hyderabad and Annamalai might be referenced. The number expanded upto 30 inside 1930.

It prompted beginning of showing work by the colleges. It not just expanded in numbers, training work likewise began in various colleges. It merits referencing that the elements of the first three colleges set up in Quite a while, specifically, Calcutta, Bombay and Madras were bound to connection, assessment and presenting degrees. Instructing was the capacity of degree schools and there was no arrangement for post-graduate training. Be that as it may, after the proposal of the commission the quantity of training colleges and private colleges expanded. The majority of the recently settled colleges were instructing colleges.

The suggestions of the Saddler University Commission demonstrated productive in the advancement of scholastic norm. Scholastic exercises expanded in the colleges and universities with the presentation of Honors courses. The investigations of various Indian dialects began and offices for higher examinations and exploration were additionally made. The post of educator was made is the colleges and the way toward welcoming took in resources from abroad to widen the scholastic standpoint was likewise begun. The division of Education was opened in Calcutta and Dacca colleges.


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How To Back Up Your Computer Files

There are life altering events we all have passed through at one time or another. One of those times for me was the crash of my 2year hard drive.
I’ve learnt to back up my files ever since I started using computers. My tutor sounded that rhythm loud to all his students then. “Back-up those files NOW everyone! Back up those files NOW everyone”, he always sang.

Now, I can safely assume he took pains to sound the alarm from such experience as I am about to share with you.
I was on a tour trip to Mozambique last year. My mission was to capture scenes of our next tourism project and broadcast live to our waiting investors. I had captured and compiled hundreds of pictures. I had gathered in neat powerpoint presentations, past projects with on-going ones and animations of our projected landing view. And just as I was about to present those, my system crashed. Talk of having all hell loose on you, that was exactly my state at that moment.

Thankfully, one of our lead prospective investor has had an experience all similar to mine. He rose to share his experience and lightened the air for me to make oral presentations. They had to picture what my words described, where a showing would have been far more appropriate. We still got the deal though.
Data lose from system crash or hard drive failure happen to even the best computer gurus. Hard drive manufacturers even report an average failure rate of between 5 to 8. Your computer may just fall within the bracket of those 5-8 that would crash. Even if you are lucky not be part of this few, some other unforeseen occurrences can make you lose data. 

You may experience a power surge. The magnets of your stereo speaker can malfunction. Even an accidental nudge can cause you to lose data on your PC.
A report from Ontrack Data Recovery Services reveals that, data lose can be caused by natural diseasters (3%), computer viruses (7%), software problems (14%), and plain old user error (32% occurence).
From this report, we see that the highest percentage of data lose occurrence is caused by plain human errors. The ones beyond our control we can only hope against. But the ones on our control, we can do all to prevent.
Let’s get you some hints on that:

Choose The Files You Want To Save

Not all files require the space you give them on your hard drive. So delete the unnecessary ones. The files I find necessary may differ from yours and that’s fine. Decide which ones can go and which ones must stay. And don’t be tempted to spare the unnecessary ones. 
I’ll keep my music files and thesis files. Why won’t I? That’s my work. I will let go of sport files and cooking files. I love both fields and read a lot of them. But I can always Google up whatever I need immediate reference on in these regards.

Where To Store Them?

It’s not advisable to put backup files on another drive on the same computer. That just won’t work. Infact, its counteractive.
You should not also duplicate your files on another computer using the same LAN. If your computer is attacked by a virus, it will spread quickly there too.
You best options is to get a portable storage pack such as a floppy disk, portable hard drive, tape drive, optical drives or remote servers.
Let’s look at the pros and cons of each:

Hard disk

The 3.5`` square ones hold about 1.44 MB data. This is quite a small storage space. And I won’t particularly welcome the idea of storing up hundreds of this small disks with the intent of labelling each diskette with the file it contains. My storage device will soon be taking up a room, if I even just try to entertain this idea for a while.
Majority of computer users opt for removable hard drives to back up their files. The Zip drive from Lomega and ORB from Castlewood are the popular removable hard drives. They hold up to 2GB data and are not so expensive.

To use the removable hard drive, you basically save your data on a Zip disk and then transfer your saved data to the portable hard drive.
Removable drives fail just as much as regular hard drives. They are even more prone to fail from accumulation of dust and from mal-handing.
The best option is to use a permanent hard drive as a removable hard drive. Conventional hard drives are bigger than removable hard drives. Some of them have up to 200GB space.
Keep all your hard drives free from dust, static electricity and magnetic charges. This way, you’ll protect them from damage that could cause a crash.

Optical Drive

This uses laser to store data instead of magnet. Your CDs and DVDs are examples of optical drives. These are cheap. A 650MB CD costs less than a buck. And a 5 GB DVD cost about 15 dollars.
Other less popular ones are Erasable Optical (EO) and Write Once, Read Many (WORM) media. These costs about a thousand dollars per drive. This explains why they are less popular, right?

Remote Servers

These are owned by companies that help you store your data online and charge you for that. For broadband internet users, this is a preferred option.


Let’s Get To It

If you choose to store your files on a CD, use the propriety disk writing software or the backup option provided in the CD. This would work fine for you if you prefer to work more on software.
If you are not someone who likes to work on software, you should use the backup option on your Microsoft operating system. That is relatively easy.
To run your Windows 98, Windows ME and Windows XP Professional back-up, follow these steps:
Step 1: Click Start
Step 2: Click Programs, then Accessories, then System Tools and then Backup.
If you use the XP Home Edition, you’ll have to add the utility manually. The Windows XP backup utility also include an automated recovery wizard. It is a bonus application which creates a bootable floppy that initiates backup if you have to replace your hard drive.
Most of us have the habit of procrastinating. Don’t let the matter of having to backup your files be one you procrastinate on. Make it an habit to back up your files, weekly or monthly as you see fit.